Item ID: 9793 Zhejiang tu shu guan cong shu di yi ji 浙江圖書館叢書第一集 [The Zhejiang Library Collectanea, First Installment]. Qian 丁謙 DING.

The Geography of Foreign Countries

Zhejiang tu shu guan cong shu di yi ji 浙江圖書館叢書第一集 [The Zhejiang Library Collectanea, First Installment].

One of the Prefaces carries the alternative title Penglai xuan di li xue cong shu 蓬萊軒地理叢書 [Geographic Collectanea from the House of the Land of Immortals]. Eight vols. 8vo, orig. wrappers, orig. stitching. [Hangzhou]: Zhejiang tu shu guan, 1915.

[with]:

—. Zhejiang tu shu guan cong shu di er ji 浙江圖書館叢書第二集 [The Zhejiang Library Collectanea, Second Installment]. Eight vols. 8vo, orig. wrappers, orig. stitching. [Hangzhou]: Zhejiang tu shu guan, 1915.

First edition of these collections of studies in historical geography. The focus in the first installment is the so-called dynastic or standard histories, each written under a new regime following the collapse of an old one. The studies concentrate on the geographical “narratives” (zhuan 傳) included for foreign states or peoples with which a given regime was in contact. Foreign states include, for example, Korea, Japan, and Ryūkyū (Okinawa). For the early periods, some of these “narratives” constitute important sources for the national histories of those countries.

The studies included in the collection are:

1. Han shu ge wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 漢書各外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in Each of the Narratives of Foreign Countries in the “Book of Han”]. The Book of Han was written by Ban Gu in 58-76 CE. It covers the years 206 BCE-24 CE.

2. Hou Han shu ge wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 後漢書各外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in Each of the Narratives of Foreign Countries in “Book of the Later Han”]. The Book of the Later Han was written by Fan Ye 范曄 (398-445) and finished in 445 CE. It covers the years 25-220 CE.

3. San guo zhi wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 三國志外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narratives of Foreign Countries in the “Records of the Three Kingdoms”]. The Records of the Three Kingdoms was written by Chen Shou 陳壽 (233-97 CE) in 264-80. It covers the years 221-80 CE.

4. Jin shu si yi zhuan di li kao zheng 晉書四夷傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narratives of the Barbarians of the Four (Directions) in the “Book of Jin”]. The Book of Jin was written by Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 (578-648) in 646. It covers the years 265-420.

5. Song shu yi mo di li kao zheng 宋書夷貊傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography of the Narratives of the Eastern and Northern Barbarians in the “Book of Song”]. The Book of Song was written by Shen Yue 沈約 (441-513) in 447-78. It covers the years 420-78.

6. Nan Qi shu yi mo zhuan di li kao zheng 南齊書夷貊傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narratives of the Eastern and Northern Barbarians in the “Book of the Southern Qi”]. The Book of the Southern Qi was written by Xiao Zixian 蕭子顯 (489-537) in 537. It covers the years 479-502.

7. Liang shu yi mo zhuan di li kao zheng 梁書夷貊傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narratives of the Eastern and Northern Barbarians in the “Book of Liang”]. The Book of Liang was written by Yao Silian 姚思廉 (d. 637) in 629-36. It covers the years 502-56.

8. Wei shu ge wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 魏書各外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in Each of the Narratives of Foreign Countries in the “Book of Wei”]. The Book of Wei was written by Wei Shou 魏收 (506-72) in 551-54. It covers the period 386-550.

9. Zhou shu yi yu zhuan di li kao zheng 周書異域傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narratives of Distant Lands in the “Book of Zhou”]. The Book of Zhou was written by Linghu Defen 令狐德棻 (583-666) in ca. 629. It covers the years 557-81.

10. Sui shu si yi zhuan di li kao zheng 隋書四夷傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography of the Narratives of the Barbarians of the Four (Directions) in the “Book of Sui”]. The Book of Sui was written by Wei Zheng 魏徵 (580-643). It covers the years 581-617.

11. Xin Tang shu ge wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 新唐書各外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography of Each of the Narratives of Foreign Countries in the “New Book of Tang”]. The New Book of Tang was written by Ouyang Xiu 歐陽修 (1007-72), Song Qi 宋祁 (998-1061) et al. in 1043-60. It covers the period 618-906.

12. Xin wu dai shi si yi fu lu di li kao zheng 新五代史四夷坿錄地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography of the Appendices on the Barbarians of the Four (Directions) in the “New History of the Five Dynasties”]. The New History of the Five Dynasties was written by Ouyang Xiu in 1037-53. It covers the years 907-60.

13. Song shi wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 宋史外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narrative of Foreign States in the “History of the Song”]. The History of the Song was written under the direction of Mongolian scholar Tuotuo 脫脫 (1314-55) in 1343-45. It covers the years 960-1279.

14. Liao shi ge wai guo di li kao zheng 遼史各外國地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in Each of the Narratives of Foreign Countries in “History of the Liao”]. The History of the Liao was written under the direction of Tuotuo in 1343-44. It covers the years 916-1125.

15. Jin shi wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 金史外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narrative of Foreign Countries in the “History of the Jin”]. The History of the Jin was written under the direction of Tuotuo in 1343-44. It covers the years 1115-1234.

16. Yuan shi wai yi zhuan di li kao zheng 元史外夷傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Narrative of the Outer Barbarians in the “History of the Yuan”]. The History of the Yuan was written by Song Lian 宋濂 (1310-81) et al. in 1369-70. It covers the years 1206-1369.

17. Ming shi ge wai guo zhuan di li kao zheng 明史各外國傳地理攷證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in Each of the Narratives of the Foreign Countries in the “History of the Ming”]. The History of the Ming was written by Zhang Tingyu 張廷玉 (1672-1755) et al. in 1678-1735 and was later revised. It covers the years 1368-1644 (Wilkinson, Chinese History, 626).

The focus in the second installment is on historical-geographical studies of Central Asia.

In the past, Genghis rose north of the Kerülen river. The people of his tribe were few and weak, facing much hardship. He first commanded one campaign and wiped out the neighboring tribes. He then travelled far and wide, traversed the Caucasus and reached Russia. None among the Europeans dared resist his vanguard. Nowadays, the East is getting weaker. The Europeans give free reign to their greedy hearts and move further east by the day. Now they travel south of the Kerülen river on the railway corridor. To take the present as the starting point for approaching the past, this makes one sigh with emotion.
Thus writes Yan Minzeng 楊敏曾 (1858-1939) in his Preface to one of the works in the second installment. Yang’s words, which contrast the expansion of Mongol power toward the west in the 13th century with the expansion of Russian power along the Trans-Siberian railway in the 20th, illustrate the stakes for Chinese historians in the early Republic.

The second installment comprises:

1. “Yuan bishi” dili kaozheng 元秘史地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the “Secret History of the Mongols”] and accompanying texts. Ding’s colophon is dated 1901 (Guangxu 27).

2. Yuan “Jingshi dadian” tu dili kaozheng 元經世大典圖地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Map in the Yuan “Great Compendium for Ordering the World”]. This work focuses on an institutional history of the Yuan.

3. Yuan “Zhang canyi Yaoqing jixing” dili kaozheng 元張參議耀卿紀行地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Yuan (work) “The Travel Diary of Consultant Zhang Yaoqing”]. Zhang Yaoqing (personal name Zhang Dehui 張德輝, 1195-1275) was a former Jin official who surrendered to the Mongols.

4. “Mu tianzi zhuan” dili kaozheng 穆天子傳地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in “An Account (of the Travels of) Emperor Mu”]. An Account (of the Travels of) Emperor Mu was “probably written during the first years of the fourth century B.C.” Some scholars believe that “the work originates in the oral tradition…of actual contacts between the Chou [Chinese] and the non-Chinese peoples of the Northwest” (The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature, 632-633).

5. Jin shi Faxian “Foguo ji” dili kaozheng 晉釋法顯佛國記地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the “Record of Buddhist Lands” by the Jin Monk Faxian]. The Record of Buddhist Lands is Faxian’s (418-23 CE) “account of seventeen years of travel through India and Western Asia” (Digital Dictionary of Buddhism).

6. Hou Wei Song Yun xiyu qiu jing ji dili kao zheng 後魏宋雲西域求經記地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Record of Song Yun of the Latter Wei’s Travels to the Western Regions in Search for Sutras]. Ding Qian writes in the preface that the text examined here has been excerpted from Luoyang qielan ji 洛陽伽藍記 [Record of Buddhist Buildings in Luoyang], by “Yang Xuanzhi 楊衒之 of the Eastern Wei. A record written in 547 by the author, a government official, of the temples in Luoyang during the Eastern Wei” (Digital Dictionary of Buddhism).

7. Yuan Yelü Chucai “Xiyou lu” dili kaozheng 元耶律楚材西游錄地理考證 [An Examination and Verification of the Geography in “Yelü Chucai of the Yuan’s Annotated Record of a Journey to the West”], title on title page: “Xishi ji” dili kaozheng 西使記地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the “Record of the Emissary to the West”]. Yelü Chucai (1190-1244) was a Khitan adviser to Genghis Khan, who accompanied the latter in his campaign against Persia. The book was finished in 1229.

8. Tulichen “Yiyu lu” dili kaozheng 圖理琛異域錄地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in Tulišen’s Record of Other Lands]. Tulišen (1667-1741) was a Manchu Qing official who went on an embassy to the Torghuts in 1712.

9. “Da Tang xiyou ji” dili kaozheng 大唐西域記地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the “Great Tang Record of Travels to Western Lands”]. Examination of a “travel record by Xuanzang 玄奘, of his seventeen-year long trip to India, where he went to study and gather Buddhist scriptures. Written in 646” (Digital Dictionary of Buddhism).

10. Tang She Huan “Jingxing ji” dili kaozheng 唐杜環經行記地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in Du Huan of the Tang’s “Record of Places I Travelled Through”]. Du Huan was a prisoner of war who is the first Chinese individual to have left a record of travels to Africa. His text dates from 762 CE.

11. Yuan “Changchun zhenren xiyou ji” dili kaozheng 元長春真人西游記地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in the Yuan-period “Changchun zhenren’s Record of Travels in the West”]. The text examined here was written by Li Zhichang 李志常 (1193-1256) and records his Daoist master’s journey to Central Asia on the invitation of Genghis Khan.

12. “Yuan shengwu qinzheng lu” dili kaozheng 元聖武親征錄地理考證 [Examination and Verification of the Geography in “Record of the Campaigns of the Sagely Warrior”]. A study of a Chinese translation from 1369 of a now-lost Mongolian chronicle.

The author, Ding Qian (1843-1919), served as an instructor in a coastal county in Zhejiang during the Sino-French War (1884-85), distinguishing himself in coastal defense. In retirement, he dedicated himself to scholarship (Zheng & Tan, Zhongguo lishi da cidian, 28).

Zhejiang Library, the publisher of Ding’s collection, was founded in 1900 as one of China’s earliest provincial libraries.

Fine set.

References

Digital Dictionary of Buddhism. http://www.buddhism-dict.net

Nienhauser, William H., Jr. The Indiana Companion to Traditional Chinese Literature. Second, revised edition. Vol. 1. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Wilkinson, Endymion. Chinese History: A New Manual. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center, 2013.

Zheng Tianting 郑天挺 & Tan Qixiang 谭其骧, eds. Zhongguo lishi da cidian 中国历史大辞典. Vol. 1. Shanghai: Shanghai cishu chubanshe, 2021.

Price: $4,000.00

Item ID: 9793

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